G. Bolacchi, Intervento al Convegno "Impresa e mercato", Rivista di Politica Economica, LXVIII, III (marzo), 1978

The contribution to the discussion focuses on pluralism as the foundation for free enterprise, social innovation, and scientific rationality. «Pluralism relates to the need to establish rules of the game, ways of coexistence between different cultures, and hence between groups that become bearers of those different cultures and compete within the social context to broaden the base of consent for their legitimacy. The discourse on pluralism, in this sense, disregards the specific project contents or ideological stances of the single groups in the social context. Pluralism is a method that does not eliminate the conflict (which remains) but regulates it to make the various groups, bearers of different social projects, coexist. In this regard, pluralism leaves room for the ideology as an intuitive, uncritical, and ultimately emotional posture pertaining to the individual experience. It is incompatible with ideology whenever it claims to be the sole factor in solving social problems, namely when it claims to be a hegemonic social culture.»

«Pluralism establishes the conditions for all choices compatible with it to be proposed and implemented. These conditions are achieved by institutionalizing three fundamental limits to power: a limit preventing the minority from directly managing public functions; a time limit on the majority exercising power; a further limit on the cumulation of managed public functions. The first limit establishes the majority principle to regulate the conflict (through the proposal of political and social innovations on which to aggregate the consent). The second limit provides for the alternation of conflicting groups in exercising power. The third limit provides for the public functions to be mutually independent. Both the pluralism and innovation arguments lead us back to the parameter of scientific rationality. In a pluralist social context, scientific rationality historically finds the broadest space for implementation. On this matter, even though it does not necessarily entail scientific rationality, pluralism is a prerequisite. Scientific rationality can grow and spread in a pluralist social context, not under an ideological hegemony.» IT

(Text of the speech, pp. 453, 455)
Giulio Bolacchi


Intervento nella seconda seduta dell’incontro di studio sul tema “Impresa e mercato”
[Market and the firm: Operating under constraints in Italy. Contribution to the second session of the study meeting]

Published in
Rivista di Politica Economica. Atti dell’Incontro di studio sul tema: Impresa e mercato. I vincoli all’operare in Italia. Portofino Vetta – 28-29 ottobre 1977

S.I.P.I. – Servizio Italiano Pubblicazioni Internazionali, Roma